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There are few approaches that you can use to add fields to existing list. But in my personal opinion i like following approach because
- It is easy rather that use XML to add entire field
- Intelligence are support based on field type (text, choice, user ..)
- Code is more readable than xml
In this example I'm adding SharePoint Choice Field (SP.FieldChoice) and SharePoint Text Field to existing SharePoint list.
Note: You can you addFieldAsXml and can give complete xml as a string to add the field as well.